The division eventually retreated toward the bridge over the Sittang River in general disorder. Under British rule, there had been substantial economic development but the majority Bamar community was becoming increasingly restive. Within three years both Burma and India were independent. The Japanese and allied forces lost at least fifty thousand dead. An uprising by Karen guerillas prevented troops from the reorganised Japanese Fifteenth Army from reaching the major road centre of Taungoo before IV Corps captured it. The naval forces for the attack on Phuket were diverted to Operation Dracula, and units of XV Corps were embarked from Akyab and Ramree. Ranges of steep hills channelled the advance into three attacks each by an Indian or West African division. The Japanese 18th Division faced the American and Chinese Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC) under Lieutenant General Daniel Isom Sultan advancing south from Myitkyina and Mogaung which the Allies had secured in 1944, while the Japanese 56th Division faced the large Chinese Yunnan armies led by Wei Lihuang. These efforts have also been criticised as fruitless because of the self-interest and corruption of Chiang Kai-Shek's regime. [citation needed], NCAC made contact with Chiang's Yunnan armies on 21 January 1945, and the Ledo road could finally be completed, although by this point in the war its value was uncertain. Troops of the 17th Indian Infantry Division tried to retreat over the Sittaung River, but Japanese parties reached the vital bridge before they did. On 1 May, a Gurkha parachute battalion was dropped on Elephant Point, and cleared Japanese rearguards from the mouth of the Yangon River. On 26 April the British, Indian and Burman forces joined the civilians in a full retreat. [citation needed], The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended. Send-to-Kindle or Email . British Empire forces peaked at around 1,000,000 land and air forces, and were drawn primarily from British India, with British Army forces (equivalent to eight regular infantry divisions and six tank regiments),[31] 100,000 East and West African colonial troops, and smaller numbers of land and air forces from several other Dominions and Colonies. Indische Infanteriedivision (1944). Unopposed Japanese bomber fleets attacked almost every major town and city in the Allied-held part of Burma, causing widespread destruction and disorder. It was part of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II and primarily involved forces of the Allies; the British Empire and the Republic of China, with support from the United States. On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. At least 500,000 civilian fugitives reached India, while an unknown number, conservatively estimated between 10,000 and 50,000, died along the way. As the threat of war grew, the Japanese sought links with potential allies in Burma. [citation needed], The Allies launched a series of offensive operations into Burma during late 1944 and the first half of 1945. The 26th Indian Infantry Division landed by ship the next day. Kimura threw Allied plans into confusion by refusing to fight at the Chindwin River. [34], Stilwell's forces (designated X Force) initially consisted of two American-equipped Chinese divisions with a Chinese-manned M3 Light Tank battalion and an American long-range penetration brigade known as "Merrill's Marauders". Both Bose and Mutaguchi emphasised the advantages which would be gained by a successful attack into India. There was also a disastrous famine in Bengal, which may have led to 3 million deaths through starvation, disease and exposure. [45] The Japanese attack caused the Hui Mu family to seek refuge in Panglong but they were driven out again to Yunnan when the Japanese attacked Panglong. Initially governed as part of British India, Burma was formed into a separate colony under the Government of India Act 1935. The siege lasted from 5 to 18 April, when the exhausted defenders were relieved. There was heavy fighting, which attracted Japanese reserves and fixed their attention. The first Japanese attack on 14 December 1941, against Victoria Point, almost the most southerly point of Burma, was expected and was not contested. … [citation needed], The Japanese troops crossed the Chindwin River on 8 March. [citation needed], In 1943 the Thai Phayap Army invasion headed to Xishuangbanna at China, but were driven back by the Chinese nationalist force. ISBN: 13: 978-1472811257. The Burma Independence Army was officially founded in Bangkok, Thailand on 28 December 1941. This later led some to question the decision to blow the bridge, arguing that the river itself did not offer much of an obstacle to the Japanese, and that more harm than good was achieved, as it resulted in the stranding of two brigades and delayed the Japanese capture of Rangoon by ten days at most. Zaloga, Steven. The rest of the Chinese troops tried to return to Yunnan through remote mountainous forests and of these, at least half died. [citation needed], The attempted Japanese invasion of India in 1944 was launched on unrealistic premises as after the Singapore debacle and the loss of Burma in 1942, the British were bound to defend India at all costs. [citation needed]. IV Corps, under Lieutenant-General Geoffry Scoones, had pushed forward two divisions to the Chindwin River. [37] The majority of the refugees at Myitkyina were forced to make their way to India via the unhealthy Hukawng Valley and the precipitous forested Patkai Range. The troops found themselves living out in the open under the torrential monsoon rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. 2002. The port was destroyed and the oil terminal was blown up. The corps was gradually pushed northward towards Mandalay. Der Erste Arakan-Feldzug von Oktober 1942 bis April 1943 war im Zweiten Weltkrieg Teil des Burmakrieges auf dem südostasiatischen Kriegsschauplatz. The break-out was a disaster. Soon some twelve Chinese divisions of 175,000 men,[7] under General Wei Lihuang, were attacking the Japanese 56th Division. Alexander ordered counter-attacks against the Japanese at Pegu, 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Rangoon, but soon realised that there was no hope of defending Rangoon. The town was captured in four days, despite resistance to the last man. • principles of war & lessons learnt. The Allies suffered 12,500 casualties, including 2,269 killed. Most of the Japanese garrison died during the Battle of Ramree Island. [according to whom?] In the spring of 1945, the other factor in the race for Rangoon was the years of preparation by the liaison organisation, Force 136, which resulted in a national uprising within Burma and the defection of the entire Burma National Army to the allied side. Lieutenant General Thomas Hutton, the commander of Burma Army with its headquarters in Rangoon, had only the 17th Indian Infantry Division and 1st Burma Division to defend the country, although help was expected from the Chinese Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek. [39] The 23,000[40] Chinese soldiers who had retreated into India were put under the command of the American General Joseph Stilwell, who had also made his way to India on foot, and were concentrated in camps at Ramgarh in Bihar. In addition to the allied advance, the Japanese now faced open rebellion behind their lines. [15] Among their concerns were the importation of Indian workers to provide a labour force for many of the new industries, and the erosion of traditional society in the countryside as land was used for plantations of export crops or became mortgaged to Indian moneylenders. Late in February, the 7th Indian Division leading IV Corps, seized crossings at Nyaungu near Pakokku. On 12 July, a Thai division began to occupy Kayah State. [citation needed], The Allied build up was also hampered by the disordered state of Eastern India at the time. [35] The troops were in an alarming state, with "hair-raising stories of atrocities and sufferings".[36]. Aug 14, 2014 - Japanese Soldiers Still Fighting WWII | 1943 part of the pacific war during world war ii Martin Brayley, Mike Chappell. The Japanese Fifteenth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Shojiro Iida, was initially assigned the mission of occupying northern Thailand, which had signed a treaty of friendship with Japan on 21 December 1941, and attacking the southern Burmese province of Tenasserim across the Tenasserim Hills. Flocks of pea fowl were common, and they tasted just like turkey; a couple of the huge, 40-inch-long Burma black squirrels were good; and one of the boys even shot, cooked, and ate a tremendous hornbill, which looked more like a buzzard than anything I ever before saw in a cooking pot. On the afternoon of 2 May 1945 the monsoon rains began in full force. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. 10 likes. Die japanischen Truppen der 15. On the other hand, China–India relations were positive from the cooperative Burma Road, built to reach the Chinese Y Force and the Chinese war effort inside of China, as well as from the heroic missions over the extremely dangerous air route over the Himalayas, nicknamed "The Hump". Although the division was rescued by Chinese infantry and British tanks in the Battle of Yenangyaung, it lost almost all its equipment and its cohesion. If this could be achieved, the lines of communication to General Stilwell's forces and the airbases used to supply the Chinese over the Hump would be cut. The retreat was delayed by incidents such as a vehicle breaking through the bridge deck, air attacks (including, allegedly, accidental attacks by the RAF and AVG), and Japanese harassment. With misgivings on the part of several of Mutaguchi's superiors and subordinates, Operation U-Go was launched. Scoones (and Slim) were slow to order their forward troops to withdraw and the 17th Indian Infantry Division was cut off at Tiddim. The British Army and British Indian Army were not ready for offensive actions in the difficult terrain they encountered, nor had the civil government, industry and transport infrastructure of Eastern India been organised to support the Army on the frontier with Burma. British and Indian casualties were minimal. Die Chindits waren eine Spezialeinheit aus britischen und indischen Truppen, die während des Zweiten Weltkriegs im Rahmen des Pazifikkriegs in Burma operierte. Burma campaign 1944 Last updated December 21, 2019. The military and political results of the Burma campaign have been contentious to historians. On 22 January 1942, the main body of the Japanese 55th Division began the main attack westward from Rahaeng in Thailand across the Kawkareik Pass. These Chinese forces became broken up, and in the retreat out of Burma part of these forces entered India. X Force was the name given to the portion of the National Revolutionary Army's Chinese Expeditionary Force that retreated from Burma into India in 1942. Some 3,000 men entered Burma in many columns. Allied air efforts were often undertaken even during the five monsoon months of the year that occur in that part of Asia—a wet season that gets as much as five me… The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control. General Archibald Wavell, the commander-in-chief of the ABDA Command, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held. Five days later, Chinese troops on the command's left flank captured the city of Bhamo. The Japanese division advanced to Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River which was garrisoned by the 2nd Burma Infantry Brigade. The Indian Eastern Army intended to reoccupy the Mayu peninsula and Akyab Island, which had an important airfield. [citation needed], Also on 17 May, a force of two Chinese regiments, Unit Galahad (Merrill's Marauders) and Kachin guerrillas captured the airfield at Myitkyina. Britain could only maintain three acti… [citation needed], The climate of the region is dominated by the seasonal monsoon rains, which allowed effective campaigning for only just over half of each year. Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on 27 May. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army (with aid from Thai Phayap Army and Burmese insurgents) drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative government. Meanwhile, the newly created Burma Corps which had been formed to relieve Burma Army headquarters of the day-to-day responsibility for operations and consisted of 1st Burma Division, 17th Indian Division and 7th Armoured Brigade, defended the Irrawaddy River valley. Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. [32] The hastily reconstituted 1st Burma Division was unable to recapture Monywa, but allowed the rest of the Corps to withdraw to the north. • naval & air aspects. In the Arakan, XV Indian Corps withstood, and then broke, a Japanese counterstrike, while the Japanese invasion of India resulted in unbearably heavy losses and the ejection of the Japanese back beyond the Chindwin River. Burma campaign 1942–43 The Burma campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. [citation needed], On 17 May, control of the Chindits passed from Slim to Stilwell. The Japanese invasion of Burma began in January 1942, and Japan conducted a series of air raids over Rangoon, where the headquarters of the Burma Corps of the British Indian Army was located. The Japanese had also been reinforced by two divisions made available by the capture of Singapore and defeated both the newly organised Burma Corps and the Chinese force. [34], Burma Corps reached Imphal in Manipur just before the monsoon broke in May 1942. During the later 1944 offensive into India and subsequent Allied recapture of Burma the Indian National Army, led by revolutionary Subhas C. Bose and his "Free India", were also fighting together with Japan. [39] From 1 April, NCAC's operations stopped, and its units returned to China and India. [42] The Japanese advance in Arakan ended just south of the Indian frontier, prompting the British military and civil authorities in and around Chittagong to implement a premature "scorched earth" policy which contributed to the Bengal Famine of 1943. Efforts to improve the training of Allied troops took time and in forward areas poor morale and endemic disease combined to reduce the strength and effectiveness of the fighting units. The Chindits now moved from the Japanese rear areas to new bases closer to Stilwell's front, and were given additional tasks by Stilwell for which they were not equipped. [19], An additional factor was the Burma Road completed in 1938, which linked Lashio, at the end of a railway from the port of Rangoon, with the Chinese province of Yunnan. Under the command of Brigadier Orde Wingate, a long-range penetration unit known as the Chindits infiltrated through the Japanese front lines and marched deep into Burma, with the initial aim of cutting the main north-south railway in Burma in an operation codenamed Operation Longcloth. On 16 April, in Burma, 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division. [citation needed], It was also the only land campaign by the Western Allies in the Pacific Theatre which proceeded continuously from the start of hostilities to the end of the war. [citation needed], The American historian Raymond Callahan concluded "Slim's great victory ... helped the British, unlike the French, Dutch or, later, the Americans, to leave Asia with some dignity. This was to be an amphibious assault on the western side of Malaya codenamed Operation Zipper. The Chinese armies each had approximately the strength of a British division but comparatively little equipment. Main article: Burma Campaign 1942–43. Though the Allied force had advanced successfully into central Burma, it was vital to capture the port of Rangoon before the monsoon to avoid a logistics crisis. However, they also instigated riots between the Buddhist and Muslim populations of the province. 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