[73] Pericles focused also on internal projects, such as the fortification of Athens (the building of the "middle wall" about 440 BC), and on the creation of new cleruchies, such as Andros, Naxos and Thurii (444 BC) as well as Amphipolis (437–436 BC).[74]. He died 2 years before the peoplessian war. He then punished the landowners of Chalcis, who lost their properties. His decree was passed but rescinded the next day, in time to save Mytilene. [30] Accordingly, he enacted legislation granting the lower classes access to the political system and the public offices, from which they had previously been barred. Significance of Pericles' Death The death of Pericles was a significant event in the course of the Peloponnesian War; however, even without Pericles' leadership the Athenian Assembly had countless opportunities to … [1] Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant of Sicyon, Cleisthenes, and the niece of the Athenian reformer Cleisthenes. This famous speech was written by Thucydides, but given by Pericles sometime during Athens’ Pelponnesian War. Thucydides was an Athenian general and historian who recorded the events of the plague of Athens. Pericles Was A Leader Of Athens After The Death Of Ephialtes Essay 1933 Words | 8 Pages. Even when in the face of mounting pressure, Pericles did not give in to the demands for immediate action against the enemy or revise his initial strategy. to 429 B.C. [109] In the summer of the same year an epidemic broke out and devastated the Athenians. We strive for accuracy and fairness. After initially subsiding, the plague of Athens returned twice – once in 429 B.C. The characteristics of the Periclean age have been discussed here. [10][8] One interpretation of the dream treats the lion as a traditional symbol of greatness, but the story may also allude to the unusually large size of Pericles' skull, which became a popular target of contemporary comedians (who called him "Squill-head", after the squill or sea-onion). The Spartan army was at this time gathered at Corinth, and, citing this as a hostile action, the Athenians refused to admit their emissaries. The plague of Athens was one of a number of epidemics that has swept through Greece since antiquity. and once in 427 B.C., not entirely dissipating until 426 B.C. The death of Pericles was a significant event in the course of the Peloponnesian War; however, even without Pericles’ leadership the Athenian Assembly had countless opportunities to … The number is pretty low, obviously, but Pericles of Athens was one such man to earn the distinction. Comparing Pericles with the men who succeeded him in the government, the Athenians finally appreciated how great a loss was his death. [9] His proverbial calmness and self-control are also often regarded as products of Anaxagoras' influence. [41] Pericles may have realized the importance of Cimon's contribution during the ongoing conflicts against the Peloponnesians and the Persians. [92] At that time, the Athenians unhesitatingly followed Pericles' instructions. [ζ] Thucydides hints at the same thing, believing the reason for the war was Sparta's fear of Athenian power and growth. Pericles, following Athenian custom, was first married to one of his closest relatives, with whom he had two sons, Paralus and Xanthippus, but around 445 BC, Pericles divorced his wife. Pericles is an average height gladiator with dark skin and long dreadlocks. [1] His judgement is not unquestioned; some 20th-century critics, such as Malcolm F. McGregor and John S. Morrison, proposed that he may have been a charismatic public face acting as an advocate on the proposals of advisors, or the people themselves. The Athenians had lost one of their greatest leaders. [91], After consultations with its allies, Sparta sent a deputation to Athens demanding certain concessions, such as the immediate expulsion of the Alcmaeonidae family including Pericles and the retraction of the Megarian Decree, threatening war if the demands were not met. His choice of words were perfect for crushing all feelings of despair and making people realize that the reason they were fighting was because they had something so great that was worth defending, their country. [135] For his part, Ben X. de Wet concludes his strategy would have succeeded had he lived longer. In 442 BC, the Athenian public voted to ostracize Thucydides from the city for 10 years and Pericles was once again the unchallenged ruler of the Athenian political arena. The Athenian general and histo … During the autumn of 431 BC, Pericles led the Athenian forces that invaded Megara and a few months later (winter of 431–430 BC) he delivered his monumental and emotional Funeral Oration, honoring the Athenians who died for their city.[105]. In 430 BC, the army of Sparta looted Attica for a second time, but Pericles was not daunted and refused to revise his initial strategy. [46] Kagan believes that Pericles used Callias, a brother-in-law of Cimon, as a symbol of unity and employed him several times to negotiate important agreements. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles", but the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars or as late as the next century. The idea behind this was to keep its citizens safe while exploiting its naval superiority over Sparta. [23] The historian Loren J. Samons II argues, however, that Pericles had enough resources to make a political mark by private means, had he so chosen. [94] Consequently, Pericles asked the Spartans to offer a quid pro quo. Despite Thucydides’ careful description in his accounts, scholars and physicians have begun to debate whether the plague of Athens was really a plague. [68], When the Athenians ordered the two sides to stop fighting and submit the case to arbitration in Athens, the Samians refused. [22] This reform signaled the beginning of a new era of "radical democracy". Thucydides initially managed to incite the passions of the ecclesia regarding these charges in his favor. [139] Donald Kagan called the Periclean strategy "a form of wishful thinking that failed", Barry S. Strauss and Josiah Ober have stated that "as strategist he was a failure and deserves a share of the blame for Athens' great defeat", and Victor Davis Hanson believes that Pericles had not worked out a clear strategy for an effective offensive action that could possibly force Thebes or Sparta to stop the war. For more than 20 years Pericles led many expeditions, mainly naval ones. Young Prince of Tyre, you have at large received The danger of the task you undertake. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically-influential Alcmaeonid family. The plague killed many Athenians in 430 B.C., during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (between Athens and Sparta). For most, the move meant abandoning their land and ancestral shrines and completely changing their lifestyle. The plague of Athens death toll is estimated to have reached 75,000 to 100,000. [21][22], In 463 BC, Pericles was the leading prosecutor of Cimon, the leader of the conservative faction who was accused of neglecting Athens' vital interests in Macedon. However, when Pericles took the floor, his resolute arguments put Thucydides and the conservatives firmly on the defensive. [131] Pericles also tried to minimize the advantages of Sparta by rebuilding the walls of Athens, which, it has been suggested, radically altered the use of force in Greek international relations. Finally, Pericles proposed to reimburse the city for all questionable expenses from his private property, with the proviso that he would make the inscriptions of dedication in his own name. A Critical Analysis of Athenian Democracy, Ash, Thomas. Pericles may simply have died of old-age-related problems. He himself died of the plague later in the year. This deputation was not allowed to enter Athens, as Pericles had already passed a resolution according to which no Spartan deputation would be welcomed if the Spartans had previously initiated any hostile military actions. [159] Kakridis proposes that it is impossible to imagine Pericles deviating away from the expected funeral orator addressing the mourning audience of 430 after the Peloponnesian war. [140][141][142] Kagan criticizes the Periclean strategy on four counts: first that by rejecting minor concessions it brought about war; second, that it was unforeseen by the enemy and hence lacked credibility; third, that it was too feeble to exploit any opportunities; and fourth, that it depended on Pericles for its execution and thus was bound to be abandoned after his death. [13], The causes of the Peloponnesian War have been much debated, but many ancient historians lay the blame on Pericles and Athens. According to Aristotle, Pericles' stance can be explained by the fact that his principal political opponent, Cimon, was both rich and generous, and was able to gain public favor by lavishly handing out portions of his sizable personal fortune. the Sicilian Expedition. His early years were quiet; the introverted young Pericles avoided public appearances, instead preferring to devote his time to his studies. [9][54] At this time, however, Athens was seriously challenged by a number of revolts among its subjects. Enter Antiochus, Prince Pericles, and followers. [166] According to Quintilian, Pericles would always prepare assiduously for his orations and, before going on the rostrum, he would always pray to the gods, so as not to utter any improper word. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that he was acclaimed by Thucydides, a contemporary historian, as "the first citizen of Athens". [8][11] Although Plutarch claims that this deformity was the reason that Pericles was always depicted wearing a helmet, this is not the case; the helmet was actually the symbol of his official rank as strategos (general). [148], Modern commentators of Thucydides, with other modern historians and writers, take varying stances on the issue of how much of the speeches of Pericles, as given by this historian, do actually represent Pericles' own words and how much of them is free literary creation or paraphrase by Thucydides. [167], Nothing was more alien to the Greeks than the notion of a Separation between church and state. Finally, there were relations involving irreverence: some later and less trustworthy sources made much of several trials for impiety in which those close to him were involved, and this raises the question of religious tolerance in fifth-century Athens and, in particular, how far individuals enjoyed freedom of thought when faced with the civic community. [66] In 449 BC Pericles proposed a decree allowing the use of 9,000 talents to finance the major rebuilding program of Athenian temples. [103] While the Spartan army remained in Attica, Pericles sent a fleet of 100 ships to loot the coasts of the Peloponnese and charged the cavalry to guard the ravaged farms close to the walls of the city. [6], The democratic party gradually became dominant in Athenian politics, and Pericles seemed willing to follow a populist policy to cajole the public. [150], Ancient Greek writers call Pericles "Olympian" and extol his talents; referring to him "thundering and lightning and exciting Greece" and carrying the weapons of Zeus when orating. Plutarch mentions other criticism of Pericles' leadership: "many others say that the people were first led on by him into allotments of public lands, festival-grants, and distributions of fees for public services, thereby falling into bad habits, and becoming luxurious and wanton under the influence of his public measures, instead of frugal and self-sufficing". [95] The terms were rejected by the Spartans, and with neither side willing to back down, the two cities prepared for war. [μ] Since Pericles never wrote down or distributed his orations,[ν] no historians are able to answer this with certainty; Thucydides recreated three of them from memory and, thereby, it cannot be ascertained that he did not add his own notions and thoughts.[ξ]. [164] He also attributes authorship of the Funeral Oration to Aspasia and attacks his contemporaries' veneration of Pericles. [61] Either because of a genuine fear for its safety after the defeat in Egypt and the revolts of the allies, or as a pretext to gain control of the League's finances, Athens transferred the treasury of the alliance from Delos to Athens in 454–453 BC. Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos (Karolidis, Pavlos) (1925), This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 15:29. [40] In 451 BC, Cimon returned from exile and negotiated a five years' truce with Sparta after a proposal of Pericles, an event which indicates a shift in Pericles' political strategy. [ο] This might, however, be the result of the incorporation of the genre of rhetoric into the genre of historiography. He rea… Pericles believed these should be the goals for every Athenian to live and die for. Pericles began to fall out of favor in Athens while still being able to maintain power. Athens reached the pinnacle of Celebrity. [127][128] According to King, by increasing the power of the people, the Athenians left themselves with no authoritative leader. Pericles now embarked on a policy designed to secure Athens’s cultural and political leadership in Greece. [34] In contrast, Donald Kagan asserts that the democratic measures Pericles put into effect provided the basis for an unassailable political strength. [139], In politics, Victor L. Ehrenberg argues that a basic element of Pericles' legacy is Athenian imperialism, which denies true democracy and freedom to the people of all but the ruling state. Agariste was the great-granddaughter of the tyrant o… [19], Plutarch says that Pericles stood first among the Athenians for forty years. The plague of Athens took place between the years 430-426 BC, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.The plague killed an estimated 300,000 people, among which was the Greek statesman Pericles.It is said to have caused the death of one in every three people in Athens, and it is widely believed to have contributed to the decline and fall of classical Greece. After the death of his wife Aspesia, Pericles lost interest in administration. Although Thucydides mentions the fining of Pericles, he does not mention the accusations against Pericles but instead focuses on Pericles' integrity. [2] Pericles also fostered Athenian democracy to such an extent that critics call him a populist. [η], Pericles was convinced that the war against Sparta, which could not conceal its envy of Athens' pre-eminence, was inevitable if unfortunate. Anthony J. Podlecki argues, however, that Pericles' alleged change of position was invented by ancient writers to support "a tendentious view of Pericles' shiftiness".